Oil encyclopedia

 
OIL ENCYCLOPEDIA
BASE OILS
Base oils are the fatty oils in which the non-fatty essential oils get diluted in.  Once your oil blend is applied to the skin, the base oils will moisturise and treat the skin with their vitamins and faty acids, whilst allowing for the essential oils to penetrate deep into the skin and onto your blood system. 
 
Apricot: Good for all skin. Highly nourishing. Specially good on prematurely aged skin. Blends well with all other oils and is a good base to dilute essential oils.
Avocado: This oil has a high ammount Lecithin which is rich in phospholipis that plays an important part in all body membranes. Monousaturated fatty acids, needed for the body to function. High content of vitamin A, B, D.  Good for dry or wrinkled skin.
Black Seed: A amazingly rich oil in nutrients. It has a unique cell structure containing an incredible ammount of vitamins and essential fatty acids. It works wonders on healing the skin and restoring the skin's natural health.  A very rich oil that need to be diluted with other lighter oils.
Castor: Composed of ricinoleic acid and three percent is composed of oleic acid, these acids have a powerful healing effect.  Wonderful on soothing skin and on scarred skin. This oil is thick and can be rather sticky so its best when blended with a lighter oil.
Evening Primrose: Rich in inoleic acid and GLA (gammo-linoleic acid), High content of Vitamin E,A.  This oil is perfect on mature skin and those with hormonal imbalances that affect the skin.
Grapeseed: A light oil from grape seeds. It has good antioxidants and vitamins that benefit all skin types. Grapessed oil is also used to help reduce cellulitis in daily massages.
Jojoba: This is a liquid wax and looks and feels like an oil. Very good for nourishing the skin as it absorved by the skin faster than other oils. It has a wonderful healing effect on inflamed skin, acne, eczema and psoriasis. It has an antioxidant property that will help extend the life of the other oils.
Pumpkin Seed: Rich in omega 6 and omega 9 fatty acids, a natural source of zinc and carotenoids.  This oil is excellent to even out the skin, add moisture and revive dull and tired skin. A dark and think oil that need to be blended with lighter oils.
Rosehip: From the seeds of the rosehip this vitamin and antioxidant rich oil has been used extensively in reducing scar tissue, wrinkles, broken veins and hyperpigmentation. Rosehip oil is believed to reduce the effects of prematurely aged skin.  
St Johns Wort: Oil from the St Johns Wort flowers. A good anti-inflammatory used in the healing of wounds, varicose veins and bruises.
Sunflower Seed: The first cold pressing of the sunflower seeds, this oil has a high content of Vitamin E that revitalises the skin and aids tissue repair. Blends well with all other oils.
 
ESSENTIAL OILS
Essential oils should never be used undiluted on the skin, they should be administrated by a qualified Aromatherapist.
The Aromatherapy use of the following oils is to be used externally only.  Dont get your oil blend into the eyes or mouth.
Keep essential oils away from the reach of children.
Please note that the Aromatherapy use listed in these oils are those given to the oils within Aromatherapy practice, we do not intend to make any medical claims.  Aromatherapy is a complimentary therapy not an alternative therapy.  You should not substitute any course of medical treatment with our blends. 
  

Common name

Botanical name

Aromatherapy use

Smell Characteristics

Blends Well with

When should this oil not be used

Angelica

Angelica archangelica

Irritated and congested skin, psoriasis.

Arthritis, Rheumatism, water retention, bronchitis, coughs, anaemia, anorexia, flatulence, fatigue, migraine, stress-related disorders. 

Rich sweet earthy distinctive smell. You either love it or hate it. Best used in small dilutions.

Patchouli, Clary-sage, vetiver, Rose, Rosewood and all citrus oils.

Not to be used in pregnancy or by diabetics.

Basil

Osmium basilicum

Insect bites, a good insect repellent, gout, muscular aches, rheumatism, ear ache, sinusitis, flatulence, cramps, scanty periods, colds, fever, flu, infectious diseases, anxiety, depression fatigue, migraines, nervous tension.

Fresh sweet spicy scent with balsamic undertone

Bergamot, clary sage, lime, geranium, hyssop, other green notes.

Possible sensitization in some individuals, do not use during pregnancy.

Bay and Laurel

Laurus nobilis

Flatulence, loss of apetite, scanty periods, colds, flu, tonsillitis.

Spicy medicinal odour.

Pine, cypress, juniper, clary sage, rosemary, lavender, citrus and spice oils.

May cause dermatitis, use in moderation due to possible narcotic properties. Should not be used in pregnancy.

Benzoin

Styrax benzoin

Cuts, chapped skin, arthritis, gout, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, colic, coughs, flu, nervous tension and stress related complaints.

Rich sweet balsamic odour

Sandalwood, rose, jasmine, frankincense, myrrh, cypress, juniper, lemon, coriander and other spice oils.

 

Bergamot

Citrus Bergamia

Acne, eczema, Oily complexion, Psoriasis, Spots, Sore throat, flatulence, colds and flu. Stress related conditions, refreshing and uplifting.

Light, green citrus flowery note.

Lavender, neroli, jasmine, geranium, juniper, coriander, chamomile, citrus oils, rose. Very much used as a top note in perfumery.

Bergamot is phototoxic, so do not use in prolonged exposure to the sun.

 

Black pepper

Piper Nigrum

Chillblains, arthritis,  muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains, stiffness, catarrh, colic, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence, heartburn and nausea. Colds, flu, infections and viruses.

Dry woody warm spicy scent

Frankincense, sandalwood, lavender, rosemary, marjoram, spices and florals.

Use in moderation.

Cajeput

Melaleuca Cajeputi

Insect bites, oily skin, spots. Muscular aches and pains, respiratory problems, cold flu and viral infections.

Camphorius medicinal odour.

Lemon, lavender, rosewood.

May irritate skin in high concentration.

Cardomon

Elettaria cardamomum

All digestive problems, mental fatigue and nervous strain.

Sweet spicy, warming and woody balsamic undertone.

Rose, orange, bergamot, cinnamon, clove, ylang ylang, cedarwood, neroli.

 

Cedarwood

Juniperus Virginiana

Acne, eczema, greasy hair, oily skin, psoriasis, arthritis and rheumatism, bronchitis, sinusitis, nervous tension.

Sweet balsamic woody scent.

Sandalwood, rose, juniper, cypress, vetiver, patchouli, benzoin.

Use in moderation avoid in pregnancy.

Cederwood

Cedras Atlantica

Acne, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, fugal infections, greasy skin, hair loss, skin eruptions.  Good for the respiratory system.

Sweet woody with a balsamic note.

Rosewood, bergamot, cypress, jasmine, juniper, neroli, clary-sage, vetiver, rosemary, ylang ylang.

Best avoided during pregnancy.

Chamomile

Chamaemelum nobili

Inflammation, digestion, calms the mind, insomnia, brings out the child within you.

Sweet floral with a fruit note.

Bergamot, Clary sage, jasmine, neroli, rose, geranium, lavender.

 

Cinnamon

Cinnamomum zeylanicum

Wasp stings and worts. Anorexia, sluggish digestion.

Warm spicy and sweet.

Orange, mandarin, benzoin, Ylang ylang.

Do not use in pregnancy. Possible irritant so do patch test first.

Clary sage

Salvia sclarea

Acne, boils, dandruff, oily skin and hair, ulcers and wrinkles. Muscular aches and pains, asthma, throat infections, depression, impotence, nervous tension and stress related conditions.

Sweet nutty herbaceous scent

Juniper, lavender, coriander, cardomon, geranium, sandalwood, cedarwood, pine, jasmine, frankincense, bergamot and other citrus oils.

Avoid during pregnancy, do not use in conjunction with alcohol, it can exaggerate

Clove

Syzygium aromaticum

Acne, athletes foot, bruises, burns, cuts, insect repellent, toothache, ulcers and wounds. Arthritis, rheumatism, sprains, asthma, bronchitis. Colic, nausea, colds and flu.

Sweet spicy odour with a fresh fruity top note.

Rose, lavender, clary sage, bergamot, bay leaf, and ylang ylang.

Use in moderation only in low dilution.

 

Coriander

Coriandrum Sativum

Circulation, muscles and joints, flatulence and nausea, colds flu and general infections.

Sweet woody and spicy, slightly musky.

Clary sage, bergamot, jasmine, neroli, petitgrain, sandalwood, cypress, pine, ginger, spices.

 

Cypress

Cupressus Sempervirens

Excessive perspiration, varicose vains, cellulitis, muscular cramp, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, coughs, nervous tension.

Sweet balsamic earthy scent.

Cedarwood, pine, lavender, mandarin, clary sage, lemon, cardamom, chamomile, juniper, benzoin, bergamot, orange, marjoram, sandalwood.

 

Eucalyptus

Eucalyptus globulus

Insect bites, and other minor skin problems, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatoid arthritis, sprains. Asthma, and other respiratory problems. Good immune system boost.

Camphorius woody scent.

Thyme, rosemary, lavender, marjoram, pine, cedarwood and lemon.

Not compatible with homeopathic treatments.

Frankincense

Boswellia Carteri

Blemishes, dry and mature complexions, scars, wounds.  Anxiety and other stress related conditions. Calms the mind, great for meditating

Fresh, sweet, woody and balsamic all at the same time. A most wonderful play on the senses.

Rose, Sandalwood, Pine, Vetiver, Geranium, Lavender, Neroli, Bergamot, Basil, Black pepper, cinnmamon.

 

Geranium

Pelargonium graveolens

Acne, bruises, broken capillilaries, congested skin, eczema, good for mature skin, oily complexion, regenerate the skin. Cellulitis, oedema, poor circulation, tonsillitis, sore throat, menopausal problems, pms, nervous tension and stress related conditions.

Rosy sweet minty scent

Lavender, patchouli, clove, rose, neroli, sandalwood, jasmine, juniper, bergamot, and citrus oils.

Avoid in pregnancy.

Ginger

Zingiber officinale

Arthritis, fatigue, muscular aches and pains, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains and strains, cattarr, sinusitis, sore throat, flatulence, indigestion, loss of apetite, nausea, travel sickness.

Warm spicy sweet earthy with a gingery uplifting note.

Sandalwood, vetiver, patchouli, frankincense, rosewood, cedarwood, coriander, rose.

 

Grapefruit

Citrus Paradisi

Acne, congested and oily skin, promotes hair growth, tones the skin, cellulitis, muscle fatigue, stiffness, water retention, cold and flu, depression, headaches, nervous exhaustion.

Fresh sweet citrus aroma

Lemon, palmarosa, bergamot, neroli, rosemary, cypress, lavender, geranium and spices.

 

Hyacinth

Hyacinthus Orientalis

Refreshing and invigorating to a tired mind, stress related conditions, and developing the creative side of the brain. Used in high class perfumes.

Sweet green floral fragrance.

Ylang ylang, benzoin, jasmine, neroli.

Use in low quantities.

Hyssop

Hyssopus officinalis

Bruises, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, inflammation, rheumatism, wonderful on all respiratory problems, colic and indigestion. Colds flu anxiety and nervous tension.

Sweet camphorius and warm spicy herbaceous.

Lavender, rosemary, bay, sage, clary sage, geranium, all citrus oils.

Use in moderation, avoid in pregnancy and epileptics. Contraindicated in high blood pressure.

Jasmine

Jasminum officinale

Dry greasy irritated sensitive skin, muscular spasm and sprains. Catarrh and coughs. Depression and stress related conditions, jasmine sometimes brings feelings of optimism, confidence and euphoria.

Rich intense warm, floral scent.

Rose, sandalwood, clary sage, and all citrus oils.

Rather overpowering so use sparingly.

Juniper

Juniperus communis

Acne, dermatitis, eczema, oily complexions, cellulitis, colds, flu, and infections, anxiety, nervous tension and stress related conditions.

Sweet fresh woody balsamic odour.

Lavender, vetiver, sandalwood, cedarwood, cypress, clary sage, pine, rosemary, benzoin, geranium and all citrus oils.

Slightly irritant, must not be used during pregnancy. Should not be used by those with kidney disease due to its nephrotoxic effect.

Lavender

Lavendula angustifolia

The only oil apart from tea tree that can be used neat straight onto the skin, use for minor skin problems, as an immune system boost, and all respiratory problems. All round marvellous oil.

Sweet floral herbaceous scent with a balsamic woody undertone.

Most oils.

 

Lemon

Citrus Limon

 

Citrus, light and fresh.

Lavender, neroli, ylang ylang, rose, sandalwood, chamomile, benzoin, fennel, geranium, eucalyptus, juniper, other citrus oils.

Can be phototoxic, apply in moderation as high quantities can become an irritant.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lemon Verbena

Aloysia triphylla

Stomach cramps, indigestion, toxic liver.

Anxiety, insomnia, stress.

Sweet lemony and at the same time floral.  Slightly astringent.

Neroli, , palmarosa and all citrus oils.

Possible sensitisation, do a patch test before use.  Do not sunbathe wearing this oil.

Lemongrass

Cymbopogon citrates

Acne, the worlds answer to natural antibiotics, athletes foot, muscular pain, poor circulation, indigestion, infectious diseases, headaches, stress related conditions.

Fresh grassy citrus scent, with an earthy note.

Geranium, palmarosa, lavender, other citrus oils.

Possible dermal irritation use with care.

Lime

Citrus aurantifolia

Acne, anaemia, brittle nails, boils, chilblains, corns, cuts, greasy skin, insect bites, spots, varicose veins, worts.

Sharp but sweet citrus. Very  much used in perfumery as a fresh top note.

Neroli, lavender, rosemary, clary-sage and all other citrus oils.

Phototoxic – avoid being in the sun wearing this oil.

Linden

Tilia vulgaris

Cramps, indigestion,headaches, insomnia, migraine, nervous tension, used in high class perfumery.

Herbaceous dry hay like odour with a floral undertone.

Floral and spice oils.

Use in moderation.

Mandarin

Citrus Reticulata

Acne, congested and oily skin, scars, spots, stretch marks, fluid retention, eases digestive problems, good for insomnia and nervous tension, the safest oils to be used in pregnancy and with children.

Sweet almost floral citrus scent. Delicious.

Other citrus, and spices.

 

Melissa

Melissa Officinalis

Allergies, insect bites, eczema, asthma, bronchitis, colic, indigestion, nausea, anxiety, depression, insomnia, migraines, nervous tension, shock and vertigo.

Fresh lemon fragrance with a green note.

Lavender, geranium, floral and citrus oils.

Use in low dilutions only as it can become an irritant.

Myrrh

Commiphora Myrrha

Athletes feet, chapped and cracked skin, eczema, mature complexions, arthritis, asthma, and other respiratory problems. Loss of appetite.

Warm rich spicy balsamic odour

Frankincense, sandalwood, benzoin, cypress, juniper, mandarin, geranium, patchouli, thyme, mint oils, lavender and spices.

Do not use in pregnancy.

Myrtle

Myrtu communis

Acne, oily skin open pores, asthma, bronchitis, chronic coughs, catarrah, because of its mildness it is suitable to use on children for chest problems and coughs and colds.

Mildly camphorius, sweet and herbaceous.

Bergamot, lavender, rosemary, clary sage, hyssop, bayleaf, lime, laurel, ginger, clove and other spice oils.

 

Neroli

Citrus auriantium var amara

Scars, stretch marks, tread veins, mature and sensitive skin. Anxiety.

Fresh and delicate floral with a citrus note.

Jasmine, benzoin, myrrh, rose, chamomile, coriander seed, geranium and all other citrus oils.

 

Nutmeg

Myristica fragrans

Arthritis, gout, muscular aches, poor circulation, rheumatism. Nausea indigestion, bacteria infections, nervous fatigue and impotence.

Nutty spicy, warm, sweet odour

Lavender, bayleaf, orange, geranium, clary sage, rosemary, lime, mandarin, petitgrain, coriander and other spice oils.

Hallucanogenic in large quantities. Use in moderation and with care in pregnancy.

Orange

Citrus sinensis

Good for dull and oily complexions, water retention, bronchitis, constipation, colds and flu, stress related conditions.

Sweet fresh fruity scent.

Lavender, lemon, neroli, clary sage, myrrh and spices.

Used in large quantities can be an irritant.

Palmarosa

Cymbopogon martini

Acne, dermatitis, minor skin infections, scars, sores, wrinkles, excellent as a face oil as it stimulates cellular stimulation and regulates sebum production. Nervous exhaustion and stress related conditions.

Sweet floral with a woody undertone.

Geranium, rosewood, sandalwood, cedarwood, and all floral oils.

 

Parsley

Petroselinum sativum

Accumulation of toxins, arthritis, broken blood vessels, cellulitis, rheumatism, sciatica, colic, flatulence, indigestion, cystitis.

Warm woody spicy herbaceous odour

Rose, neroli, tea tree, clary sage, spice oils.

Do not use in pregnancy. Use in moderation.

Patchouli

Pogostemon cablin

Acne, athletes foot, cracked and chapped skin, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema,   insect repellent, oily hair and skin, open pores, sores, wounds and wrinkles.Nervous exhaustion and stress related complaints.

Sweet peppery with a light herbaceous note

Vetiver, sandalwood, cedarwood, geranium, clove, lavender, rose, orange blossom, bergamot, myrrh, clary sage.

 

Peppermint

Menthe piperita

Acne, dermatitis, muscular pain, respiratory problems, excellent for the digestive system, immune system booster. Mental fatigue, migraine and vertigo.

Grassy minty camphorius odour

Benzoin, lavender, marjoram, lemon, eucalyptus and other mints.

Use in moderation. Not compatible with homeopathic treatments.

Pettitgrain

Citrus auriantium var amara

Acne, excessive perspiration, greasy skin and hair. Stress related conditions.

Similar to neroli but with a greener and sweeter note.

Rosemary, lavender, geranium, bergamot, neroli, clary sage, jasmine, benzoin, palmarosa.

 

Rose

Rosa damascena

Broken capillaries, dry skin, eczema, mature and sensitive complexions, wrinkles. Poor circulation, coughs, hayfever, irregular menstruation, depression, impotence, frigidity, headaches, stress related complaints. Above all rose brings a feeling of wellbeing and happiness.

Deep rich floral with a spicy undertone.

Blends well with most oils and great for rounding off blends.

Avoid in pregnancy.

Rosemary

Rosmarinus officinalis

Acne, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, greasy hair, insect repellent, stimulates scalp, varicose veins. Gout, muscular pain, poor circulation, rheumatism, asthma, bronchitis, colitis, flatulence, colds, flu and infections. Nervous exhaustion and stress related disorders.

Fresh minty herbaceous scent, with a woody balsamic undertone.

Lavender, citronella, thyme, pine, basil, peppermint, cedarwood, petitgrain, cinnamon and other spice oils.

Avoid during pregnancy, not to be used by epileptics, contraindicated in cases of high blood pressure.

Rosewood

Aniba roseodora

Acne, dermatitis, scars, wounds, wrinkles.

Immune system booster.  Balances the nervous system.

Sweet and at the same time fresh woody smell with a floral note.

This oil blends well with everything, whenever a blend goes wrong, a couple of drops of Rosewood saves most blends.

 

Sandalwood

Santalum album

Acne, dry and cracked skin, greasy skin. Bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, sore throat, diarrhea, nausea, cystitis, depression, insomnia, nervous tension and stress related complaints.

Soft, sweet woody balsamic scent

Rose, clove, lavender, black pepper, bergamot, rosewood, geranium, benzoin, vetiver, patchouli, myrrh and jasmine.

 

Spearmint

Menthe spicata

Same as peppermint but not as powerful making this oil excellent to use with children.

Warm spicy herbaceous minty odour

Lavender, jasmine, eucalyptus, basil, rosemary and other mints.

Not compatible with homeopathic treatments.

Spikenard

Nardostachys jatamansi

Allergies, inflammations, good for mature skin as its rejuvenating, rashes, insomnia, nervous indigestion, migraines, stress and tension.

Heavy sweet woody, spicy animal like odour.

Lavender, patchouli, pine, vetiver and spice oils.

Use in moderation.

Star Anise

Illicium verum

Muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, bronchitis, coughs, cramps, flatulence, indigestion and colds.

Warm spicy extremely sweet liquorice like scent.

Rose, lavender, orange, pine, other spices.

Narcotic in large doses, and slows down circulation therefore use in moderation only. Avoid during pregnancy.

Sweet fennel

Foeniculum Vulgare

Bruises, dull oily mature complexions, cellulitis, oedema, rheumatism, excellent for the digestive system.

Very sweet anise like earthy, peppery scent.

Geranium, lavender, rose, sandalwood.

Narcotic in large doses. Not to be used by epileptics or during pregnancy, use in moderation.

Sweet marjoram

Origanum marjorana

Chilblains, bruises, arthritis, muscular aches and stiffness, rheumatism, sprains and strains, asthma, bronchitis and coughs, colic, constipation, flatulence, pmt, colds, headaches, insomnia, migraine, all stress related conditions.

Warm woody spicy camphorius odour

Lavender, rosemary, bergamot, chamomile, cypress, cedarwood, tea tree, eucalyptus.

Not to be used in pregnancy.

Tagetes

Tagetes minuta

Bunions, calluses, corns, fungal infections.

Bitter green herby odour.

Clary sage, lavender, jasmine, bergamot and other citrus oils.

Use with care, in moderation.

Tea Tree

Melaleuca Alternifolia

Most skin complaints, and respiratory system booster, great for infectious ailments.

Warm fresh spicy camphorius odour.

Lavender, clary sage, pine, geranium, marjoram, spice oils.

 

Thyme

Thymus vulgaris

Abscess, acne, bruises, burns, cuts, dermatitis, eczema, insect bites, lice, gum infections, oily skin. Arthritis, cellulitis, gout, muscular aches and pains, oedema, poor circulation, rheumatism, sprains. Asthma, bronchitis, catarrh, coughs, sinusitis,sore throat, diarrhea, flatulence, cystitis, colds, flu, infectious diseases, headaches, insomnia and stress related complaints.

Spicy herbaceous powerful odour

Bergamot, lemon, rosemary, Melissa, lavender, marjoram, pine, and other alpine scents.

Use in moderation as it can become an irritant, do not use in pregnancy or with high blood pressure.

Tuberose

Polianthes tuberose

Widely used in perfume, the scent transports you to fairyland.

Heavy sweet floral, little spicy tenacious fragrance.

Rose, jasmine, carnation, neroli.

 

Vanilla

Vanilla planifolia

No aromatherapy use, used for its scent alone.

Sweet, balsamic, vanilla like.

Sandalwood, vetiver, benzoin and spice oils.

 

Vetiver

Vetiveria zizanioides

Acne, oily skin, arthritis, muscular aches and pains, rheumatism, stiffness, depression, insomnia, nervous tension, deeply relaxing, used in perfumery as a fixative.

Smokey earth woody odour with a sweet persistent undertone.

Sandalwood, rose, violet, jasmine, patchouli, lavender, clary sage, ylang ylang.

Use in moderation

Violet leaf

Viola odorata

Acne, eczema, refines the pores, thread veins, poor circulation, rheumatism, bronchitis, dizziness, headaches, insomnia, nervous exhaustion.

Sweet rich floral earthy fragrance.

Tuberose, clary sage, basil, hyacinth, other florals.

Possible sensitization in some individuals.

Yarrow

Achillea millfolium

Acne, burns, cuts, eczma, inflammation, rashes, scars, varicose veins, wounds.

Green, herbaceous with a camphoraceous note.

Pine, Cederwood, Valerian, vetiver and Roman Chamomile.

Possible sensitisation, do a patch test before use. 

Ylang Ylang

Cananga odorata

Aphrodisiac, Acne, Insect bites, irritated and oily skin.

A sweet oriental floral scent.  Use in small dilutions.

Rosewood, jasmine, vetiver, bergamot, Rose.

Use in small dilutions as its quite heady.